The National Interest: The Taliban’s takeover of Afghanistan in August 2021 came as a surprise to many. At the regional level, it raised concerns about Pakistan’s role in Afghanistan and its continuing relationship with the Taliban. Pakistan’s use of Afghanistan as a proxy to maintain its influence has been of particular interest to India, which worked very closely with the erstwhile governments in Afghanistan from 2002 until 2021 and closed its diplomatic missions after the Taliban’s takeover. Now that the Taliban has completed its first year of rule, it is important to explore how India and Pakistan have engaged with the Islamic Emirate of Afghanistan under Taliban 2.0. Click here to read more (external link).