Human Rights Watch: At last year’s NATO Summit in Warsaw, member states endorsed a new policy on the protection of civilians. This policy came at a crucial time, as civilians are increasingly bearing the brunt of the armed conflict in Afghanistan, where civilian casualties have steadily risen since 2014. NATO’s Resolute Support Mission functions to “train, advise, and assist” the Afghan National Security Forces (ANSF), making NATO uniquely placed to implement the new civilian protection policy by discouraging unlawful ANSF practices and pressing the government to institute effective civilian protection measures. In an appendix to this letter we have included recommendations specific to NATO’s operations in Afghanistan. Click here to read more (external link).